Uterine bacterial contamination is common in dairy cattle during the first 2 weeks postpartum. Endometritis causes delayed ovarian activity and prolonged luteal phases, resulting in reduce submission, conception and pregnancy rates and increased culling. Recently the term purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) was adopted because it is more descriptive and covers a range of conditions: endometritis, vaginitis and cervicitis.
Ultrasonographic scoring systems for assessing endometritis are practical and effective in diagnosing clinical and sub-clinical diseases, as well as a good predictor for reproductive outcome. The identification of PVD and presence of endometritis on ultrasonographic examination (UE) are key for diagnosis of reproductive tract disease (RTD) in cows.
Prevalence of reproductive track disease. Are the data accurate?
The incidence of RTD varies widely around the globe, this is due to lack of a clear definition for the disease, lack of diagnostic gold standards and differences in populations and farming systems. Furthermore, many risk factors can play a role in the development of RTD, such as retained fetal membranes (RFM), metritis, dystocia, primiparity and negative energy balance.