Fertilized egg

Relationship between gestation loss and different management factors

Maria Villagrasa & Nuria Garcia

Cow fertility plays an important role in the productivity of dairy cow herds. Gestation losses during the late embryonic and early fetal phases are among the leading causes of infertility in dairy cows and a crucial factor for farm economy.

Embryonic losses are classified as early or late before and after day 25, respectively; the average rate of late embryonic loss is 10-12%, but this figure varies widely between farms and ranges from 3.5% to 26.3%.

This content is locked

Login To Unlock The Content!
Harvest

Comparison of the nutritional composition of soybean meal from different countries

Mercedes Gonzalez & Fernando Diaz

Soybeans are a widespread crop worldwide, both as food for human consumption and as livestock feed; they are thus a common ingredient in dairy cattle rations. One of their most common uses is as meal usually after extracting the oil from the beans, constituting an important source of protein in rations for dairy cattle.

Raw soybeans contain trypsin inhibitors which are considered anti-nutritional factors since trypsin participates in protein digestion, and to be able to digest the protein in the soybean meal more effectively they need to be inactivated by heat treatment.

This content is locked

Login To Unlock The Content!
Spices

Use of high-intensity sweeteners in ruminant feeding

Mercedes Gonzalez & Fernando Diaz

Flavorings are food additives that modify the taste or smell of food and increase its palatability. In ruminant feeding they are used with the aim of promoting voluntary intake without increasing caloric intake. At some particular times in the production cycle such as weaning, they are especially useful to stimulate animals to eat their ration and avoid weight losses or growth delays.

One type of flavoring is high-intensity sweeteners, which at low doses have an intense sweet taste. In general, they are obtained by chemical synthesis, although they can also have natural origin; examples include saccharine, aspartame or sodium cyclamate.

This content is locked

Login To Unlock The Content!
Blue lupin flour

Blue lupin supplementation reduces methane production in dairy cows

Maria Villagrasa & Fernando Diaz

There is great reliance on soybean meal as the main source of protein in animal production, and as a result the animal feed sector is looking for protein alternatives with which to replace it. Blue lupins (Lupinus angustifolius) are a legume of Australian origin that could be an alternative protein source in animal production.

Lupinus is a very diverse and widespread genus in the Fabaceae family with numerous species. It is distributed over a wide range of climates, from the subarctic region to semi-desertic and subtropical climates, as well as from sea level to alpine ecosystems.

This content is locked

Login To Unlock The Content!
Milk bottles

Prediction of enteric methane emissions from milk fatty acid profiles and dairy products

Andrés Haro

Enteric fermentation of ruminants is the main source of methane in the dairy industry that constitutes a loss of energy and contributes to greenhouse gas emissions. Direct quantification of greenhouse gas today is complex and requires high accuracy. Therefore, researchers are taking immediate action to reduce its impact.

Among the different methods used to indirectly measure methane enteric emissions in dairy cattle are predictions from the analysis of fatty acid profiles in milk, an easy method to be used in the field.

This content is locked

Login To Unlock The Content!
Oilseed rape

Management strategies to maximize production and nutritive value of forage rape

Maria Villagrasa & Fernando Diaz

Rape (Brassica napus) is a plant of the cruciferous family along with cabbages, cauliflowers, turnips, etc. In recent years there has been a significant increase in its productivity, reaching between 11-14 T/ha, mainly as a result of new varieties and hybrids.

This plant offers good quality forage that can be preserved both as hay, silage, or even used as grazed forage because of its good regrowth. There can be large differences however in its dry matter (DM) content depending on the variety, so it is important to select those with the best forage characteristics and high DM production.

This content is locked

Login To Unlock The Content!
Dairy cows

Milk production and the incidence of purulent vaginal discharge in grazing dairy cows

Mercedes Gonzalez & Nuria Garcia

Pasture-based milk production systems are seasonal, requiring cows to become pregnant every 365 days to take advantage of fresh grass as an economic feed source. Grazing cows are more vulnerable to negative energy balance than cows in intensive systems since they are more likely to suffer nutritional imbalances, resulting in worse reproductive performance and lower farm profitability.

To strengthen economic sustainability, peaks of maximum grass growth during spring must be aligned with the highest animal requirements. The short time period (about 85 days) during which cows in seasonal grazing systems must conceive to maintain reproductive efficiency, leaves little room for delays, and therefore postpartum pathologies should be minimized.

This content is locked

Login To Unlock The Content!
Tractors

Effects of compaction on silage quality of grass stored in bunker silos

Mercedes Gonzalez & Fernando Diaz

One of the key steps to achieve optimal quality during silage storage, is to extract the air to maximize anaerobic conditions necessary to promote a lactic fermentation of the chopped plants.

Air elimination is achieved by compacting the forage material by treading on top, usually with the use of heavy machinery. Compaction will be insufficient if the grass is not well cut and/or has excessive particle size, or if the equipment does not have enough weight per ton of forage.

This content is locked

Login To Unlock The Content!
Corn silage

Effects of delayed sealing on corn silage fermentation

Mercedes Gonzalez & Fernando Diaz

Silages contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) that arise from fermentation of organic matter by yeasts and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB), enterobacteria or clostridiums, which produce acetic, propionic or butyric acids, and alcohols such as ethanol or propanol. Other VOC are esters and aldehydes. The concentration of VOC in silage varies depending on each forage type, storage conditions and the use of additives.

The VOC present in silages can impart strange smells and result in feed rejection decreasing feed intake, reducing production, and altering cow metabolism.

This content is locked

Login To Unlock The Content!
Oat

Effects of wilting oat forage on the nutritive value of the silage

Maria Villagrasa

Oats is considered a cold season crop, mainly grown in temperate to colder climates. The overall energy concentration of the forage is low, because of its high fiber and lignin, and low starch concentrations. The grain is high in fat content (4.9%) with high levels of unsaturated fatty acids (35% oleic and 39% linoleic fatty acids),

With a protein content of around 9%. Its solubility and ruminal degradability are very high. Compared to other grains it has a high concentration of essential amino acids particularly high concentration of cystine (3% of the total protein).

This content is locked

Login To Unlock The Content!