How much milk replacer is necessary to ensure calf health and growth?
Colostrum is an excellent source of nutrients with a much higher concentration compared with milk.
In young calves the optimum temperature humidity index has not been determined.
The postnatal injection of zinc, manganese, copper and selenium reduces the incidence of calf diarrhea and pneumonia.
Weaned calves, raised during the summer, have reduced gains because of heat stress and the effect of rain on bedding.
Colostrum can be a potential source of pathogen microorganism.
It has become a common practice to feed non-saleable milk to dairy calves.