Traditionally, propylene glycol and glycerol have been used as gluconeogenic precursors. While glycerol increases plasma glucose concentration faster than propylene glycol, the latter maintains a higher glucose concentration longer.
High producing dairy cows in early lactation are generally in negative energy balance and prone to develop ketosis. Their reduced appetite during the transition period challenges their ability to fulfill their nutrient requirements for milk production.
The transition period is challenging for lactating dairy cows. Many ailments pop-up of metabolic as well as infectious origin result of increased stress/reduced defenses, and sudden increased body demands for nutrients.
Subclinical ketosis is characterized by elevated levels of ketone bodies in blood, and it is one of the most common metabolic disorders in dairy cows during early lactation. Cows with ketosis reduce their dry matter intake and are more prone to develop other diseases such as metritis, and displacement of abomasum.